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 UMUZI W’IBIBAZO ABANYARWANDA BAFITE MURI IKI GIHE N’IBISUBIZO BIKWIYE MU GIHE KIHUTIRWA –––––––––––––––––––––

Iyi nyandiko igamije kwerekana ibibazo by’ingenzi abanyarwanda bafite bishingiye ku mitegekere mibi ya FPR, irangwa n’igitugu, irondabwoko n’akarengane. Irarikira kandi abanyapolitiki n’abandi banyarwanda b’inyangamugayo batandukanye, babona kimwe ibyo bibazo n’uburyo bwo kubikemura, guhuza ingufu kugira ngo babashe gutabara rubanda. I.Imitegekere mibi n'ivangura ry’amoko II.Igisubizo cy'ibibazo by'u Rwanda mu mitegekere ihamye mu nyungu rusange z'abanyarwanda bose

I. Imitegekere mibi n'ivangura ry'amoko Guhera taliki ya 01 Ukwakira 1990, FPR yashoje intambara ku Rwanda, kugeza ku icuraburindi ryo muri 1994, imbaga y’abanyarwanda;abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa bakahatikirira. Ibyo byabaye inzira FPR Inkotanyi yanyuzemo kugira ngo ifate ubutegetsi ku ngufu muri Nyakanga 1994. FPR yaje yica abanyarwanda;abayihunze bakajya mu bihugu by’ibituranyi, baje gucyurwa baraswa, abageze mu gihugu bamwe baricwa, abandi baraburabuzwa, abataratashye bahigwa bukware gugeza magingo aya. Ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwiyerekanye bushimangira ubusumbane hagati y’amoko, agatsiko gatoya k’abatutsi n’abahutu b’udukingirizo gategeka abandi banyarwanda basigaye, nkuko byahoze ku ngoma ya cyami. Kubera ibikorwa n’imitegekere mibi ya FPR, abanyarwarnda banyotewe n’impinduka nziza ibageza ku bwiyunge, ubwigenge, iterambere n’amahoro birambye.

Imitegekere ya FPR Ubutegetsi bwa FPR bushingiye ahanini kuri ibi bikurikira:

1.Urwego rw’amategeko n'ubutabera

Ku butegetsi bwa FPR abanyarwanda ntibareshya imbere y'amategeko kandi bugarijwe n'akarengane ka hato na hato.

a) Mu Itegekonshinga hitwajwe amahano yabereye mu Rwanda mu 1994, ubwoko bw’abatutsi nibwo bwonyine bwanditswe mu itegeko nshinga ry’igihugu, bikerekana ko iryo tegeko rigenga ayandi ridaha agaciro andi moko asigaye agize abanyarwanda ariyo ay’abahutu n’ay’abatwa;

b) Muri rusange amategeko yanditse ntakurikizwa uko bikwiye mu Rwanda, ahubwo abereyeho kwitwazwa mu kurenganya bamwe mu gihe abagize agatsiko k’indobanure (abatutsi bake baturutse hanze muri 1994) bo atabareba;

c) Kwibasira ubwoko bw'abahutu, hafungwa umubare munini wabo bamwe bahimbirwa ibyaha mu manza za Gacaca, izo nzirakarengane zikaba zikiri mu magereza kugeza magingo aya, byashegeshe umuryango nyarwanda ku buryo budasubirwaho.

d) Ubwisanzure bwo kuvuga icyo utekereza no kutabona ibintu kimwe na FPR byabaye icyaha.

2. Urwego rw’uburenganzira

Mu gihe cy'imitegekere ya FPR, abanyarwanda banyazwe uburenganzira bwabo bw'ibanze aribwo; uburenganzira ku buzima, ku mutungo, ku mutekano.

a) Abanyarwanda bagizwe abacakara mu gihugu cyabo;

b) Barahohoterwa kandi bagakorerwa iyicarubozo;

c) inkiko ntizikirenganura abenegihugu kebera FPR iri hejuru y'amategeko; d) Akarengane n'urugomo byahawe intebe mu Rwanda.

e) Guhimbirwa ibyaha, kuburirwa irengero, gufugwa bya hato na hato byabaye umuco.

f) Abanyarwanda bambuwe uburenganzira bwo gusohoka no kwinjira mu gihugu igihe bashakiye ku buryo abatavugarumwe na FPR bacirirwa ishyanga.

g) Abaturage bambuwe uburenganzira ku butaka.

h) Abanyarwanda nta mutekano, ubwigenge no kwishyira ukizana bafite, bahinduwe ibikange hagamijwe kubabuza uburenganzira bwabo bw'ibanze bwo guhaguruka ukirwanaho igihe wugarijwe.

3. Gusaranganya ibyiza by'igihugu 

Ibyiza by’igihugu byihariwe na FPR, abandi bose bahinduwe inkomamashyi n'abagererwa mu gihugu cyabo.

a) Abaturage bamburwa amasambu n'ibishanga.

b) Bamburwa amazu yabo ku ngufu kandi bagasenyerwa nta ngurane bahawe.

c) FPR yikubiye amasoko y’ubucuruzi mu gihugu, ushatse kuba yacuruza atari mu gatsiko akaba yabizira, yanyagwa ubucuruzi bwe cyangwa akagomba gutanga umusanzu uhoraho mu rwego rwo kwigura;

d) FPR yihariye imyanya ifata ibyemezo mu buyobozi bw’inzego zinyuranye z’ubuzima bw’igihugu guhera ku rwego rwo hasi kugera ku mukuru w’igihugu.

e) Himitswe umuco w'itonesha, ruswa n'icyenewabo hagamijwe gukungahaza abagize agatsiko ka FPR

f) FPR yimakaje ubutegetsi bw'igitugu budatorwa n’abaturage kandi ntibwite ku nyungu zabo, ahubwo bugakorera agatsiko k’abantu b’indobanure. Bizwiko kuva FPR Inkotanyi yafata ubutegetsi, abayobora uturere badatorwa mu by'ukuri, ahubwo bashyirwaho na FPR, kandi kugirango uhabwe uwo mwanya, ari uko uba wemeye kandi warerekanye ko uharanira mbere na mbere inyungu z’ishyaka FPR kurusha iza rubanda.

g) FPR yigize kamara, ku buryo yiyumvisha kandi ikumvisha abandi ko idahari ibintu byadogera.

4. Urwego rw’uburezi

FPR yishe nkana ireme ry'uburezi ishyiraho gahunda zigamije kudindiza abana ba rubanda igooka.

a) FPR yazambije nkana uburezi mu buryo bwo gutanga ubumenyi mu mashuri ya rubanda rwa giseseka hahindagurwa porogaramu ku buryo ireme ry’uburezi ritakibaho.

b) Harihirwa abana bamwe amashuri abandi bakabuzwa uburyo kubera ko batari mu bo bita abacikacumu;

c) kohereza abanyeshuri kwiga mu mahanga aho bamwe boherezwa bagahabwa buruse abandi bagakumirwa.

d) Yashyizeho amashuri y’abana b’abaherwe atagerwamo n’abana ba rubanda igoka.

e) FPR yirengagiza kandi ntiha agaciro umwarimu muri rusange, bituma ireme ry’uburezi ritagerwaho mu ikubitiro, bikagira ingaruka mbi ku bana ba rubanda igoka.

f) Gufata ibyemezo bihubukiwe, hadashingiwe ku bushobozi bwa rubanda n’ubw’igihugu muri rusange.

g) Kubuza uburyo amashuri yigenga kugira ngo ay’agatsiko ka FPR abone yonyine abanyeshuri bayigamo bishyura umurengera kuko yabihinduye ubucuruzi.

h) Gutera akajagari mu mashuri n’ibigo by’ubumenyi hitwajwe amavugurura adashira kandi adasobanutse.

5. Politiki ishingiye ku kinyoma

Ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwahisemo kwimakaza umuco w'ikinyoma mu buzima bw'igihugu bwose.

a) FPR yahinduye itsembabwoko n’itsembatsemba byabaye mu Rwanda mu mwaka w’1994 ishingiro ry’ivangura mu banyarwanda;

b) Politiki ya “Ndi umunyarwanda” igamije gutesha agaciro abanyarwanda bamwe ikimika abandi ku buryo buhoraho;

c) Gahunda ya FPR yo kuvangura abazima n'abapfuye ibangamiye ubwiyunge bw'abanyarwanda;

d) Guhindagura amazina y’uturere, ibikorwa ndangamurage n'amateka y'igihugu hagamijwe guhisha amarorerwa yakozwe na FPR Inkotanyi mu gihe cy’intambara na nyuma y’aho ifatiye ubutegetsi ku ngufu;

e) Kurata umubare munini w'amashuri na za kaminuza hatitawe ku ireme ry'uburezi ritangwa;

f) Kurata politike ya girinka kandi inzara na bwaki byugarije rubanda igoka.

g) Kwamamaza ubwishingizi bw’ubuzima (mutuelle de santé) nyamara rubanda igoka ifungirwa kutabasha kuriha ibitaro.

6. Urwego rw'ubukungu

FPR yimakaje politike igamije kwiharira ubukungu bwose bw'igihugu, bigira ingaruka mbi ku iterambere ry'abenegihugu.

a) Kwambura abaturage ubutaka bwabo n’indi mitungo;

b) Gukenesha abaturage bishingiye ku kubategeka ibyo bagomba guhinga, no kubaka uburenganzira bwose ku musaruro wabo;

c) FPR Ikoresha ibigo bya leta mu kunyereza umutungo w’igihugu, itegeka abaturage kugura amafumbire ya kijyambere ku nguzanyo igamije kubagira ingwate kugirango ibatware umusaruro wabo.

d) Gusoresha abaturage bya hato na hato ku buryo umuturage atabasha kubaho no kugira icyo yakwizigamira;

7. Ibyerekeye umuryango n'imibereho y'abaturage

FPR yasenye umuryango nyarwanda ibiba amacakubiri n'urwikekwe hagati y’umugabo n’umugore, abana n‘ababyeyi, hagamijwe kugira abantu ba nyamwigendaho;

a) Gutesha agaciro umuryango n’umugore by’umwihariko kugeza aho abasirikare ba FPR bajya gufatira abagore ku ngufu imbere y’abagabo n’abana babo, kandi ntibakurikiranwe n'amategeko;

b) FPR yabibye umuco w’ubusambanyi mu rubyiruko bikozwe na bamwe mu bayobozi n'abandi banyabubasha kandi abana bavutse muri ubwo buryo bagatereranwa;

c) Kudahana abagaragaweho umuco mubi wo gusambanya abana na ruswa y’igitsina yakwiye mu gutanga akazi,

d) Gushora abana ba rubanda igoka mu ntambara zidashira hagamijwe gutera akaduruvayo mu benegihugu no guhungabanya umutekano mu bihugu by'abaturanyi;

e) Kwirengagiza ikibazo cy'abasangwabutaka batitabwaho, ahubwo hagorekwa amateka yabo.

8. Urwego rw’ububanyi n'amahanga

Politike ya FPR ishingiye ku bucancuro no kwigira gashozantambara mu bihugu by'ibituranyi ibyo bigaragarira mu bikorwa bikurikira:

a) Gushotora abaturanyi;

b) Kuba igikoresho cya ba mpatsibihugu na ba rusahuriramunduru;

c) Politike ya FPR y'ubutwererane ishingiye ku kinyoma na jenoside yahinduwe ubucuruzi hagamijwe kurengera inyungu z’agatsiko; d) Kubeshya amahanga ku miterere n'isura nyakuri y’igihugu n’abagituye hagamijwe kubona inkunga n’inguzanyo agatsiko kanyereza, rubanda igasigara iheruheru kandi ari yo izishyura.

9. Ibyerekeye impunzi

Mu rwego rwo kwikubira ubutegetsi, FPR yahisemo Politike yo gucira ishyanga abatavugarumwe nayo no kwirengagiza nkana ikibazo cy'impunzi zinyanyagiye hirya no hino ku isi.

a) Kuba FPR yarimakaje politike y'igitugu no kwambura abenegihugu uburenganzira bwabo bw'ibanze bituma bahitamo inzira y'ubuhunzi;

b) Guhiga, guhungeta, guharabika, gucamo amacakubiri no kwica impunzi mu bihugu zahungiyemo, yabigize intego na politike yayo; c) Kudakemura ibibazo bitera ubuhunzi.

II. Igisubizo cy'ibibazo by'u Rwanda ni imitegekere ihamye mu nyungu rusange y'abanyarwanda bose Kubera ko ingaruka z’amahano yabaye mu Rwanda atewe n’intambara yashojwe na FPR Inkotanyi ku italiki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 zikomeza kubangamira imibereho myiza y’abanyarwanda muri rusange;

Kubera ko abanyarwanda bakuze babonye ububi bw’intambara n’ingaruka zayo, urubyiruko rukaba ruyibarirwa gusa;

Kubera kandi ko politiki y’ivangura hagati y’abahutu n’abatutsi yahawe intebe kuva FPR Inkotanyi yafata ubutegetsi muri Nyakanga 1994 ikaba igikomeza magingo aya;

Kubera ko bigaragara ko ibintu hafi ya byose mu Rwanda bigengwa na perezida Kagame akoresha ishyaka rye FPR, igisilikari cyangwa inzego zigenga umutekano, byose mu nyungu ze bwite n’iz’agatsiko ahagarariye;

Kubera ko abanyarwanda bakomeje kuvutswa uburenganzira bwabo bw’ibanze mu gihugu cyabo bagafatwa nk’abagererwa n’ubutegetsi butabacira akari urutega;

Kubera ko imitegekere y'igitugu cya FPR, yavanye mu banyarwanda icyizere muri ejo hazaza habo bwite, kwizerana hagati yabo ubwabo, no gukemura ibibazo bibugarije;

Abifuza guhindura ubutegetsi bubi bwa FPR Inkotanyi bakwiye kugendera mu murongo w’ibitekerezo bikuririra:

  1. Urwego rw’amategeko n’ubutabera

Abanyarwanda bagomba kureshya imbere y'amategeko kandi bakarenganurwa n'inkiko.

a) Amategeko ariho n’ashyirwaho yose agomba kuba yimirije imbere kurinda inyungu za rubanda;

b) Amategeko mu Rwanda agomba kuba atavangura ahubwo areshyeshya abenegihugu bose;

c) Gushyiraho inzego z’igihugu zikora uko amategeko abiteganya, ntizibe ibikoresho by’abatorewe kuyobora igihugu. Nta muntu ugomba kuba hejuru y’amategeko.

d) Hagomba kubaho uburyo buzwi bwo guhana abashinzwe kubahiriza amategeko bakayica nkana;

e) Ubutegetsi bugomba gutangwa n'abaturage biciye mu nzira y'amatora adafifitse, bukabakorera mu nyungu rusange zabo.

f) Urwego rw’ubucamanza rugomba kwigenga kandi rugakiranura abenegihugu nta nkomyi.

g) Ikibazo cy'abagize uruhare mu mahano yagwiririye u Rwanda no kunyereza umutungo w'igihugu kigomba gukemurwa n'ubutabera.

h) Gushyiraho komisiyo yigenga ihoraho, ishinzwe gutegura itegeko nshinga, kuririnda no kurebako ryubahirizwa.

2. Urwego rw’uburenganzira

Abanyarwanda bagomba gusubizwa uburenganzira bwabo bwose:

a) Buri munyarwanda agomba kugira uburenganzira ku buzima, ku mutungo no ku mutekano.

b) Buri munyarwanda wese agomba kwishyira akizana mu gihugu cye;

c) Buri munyarwanda agomba guhabwa ibyo yemerewe n’amategeko nta yandi mananiza;

d) Buri munyarwanda agomba kugira uburenganzira busesuye bwo kwibumbira mu mashyirahamwe n'imitwe ya politike;

e) Buri munyarwanda afite uburenganzira mbonezamubano, ku bukungu na politike;

f) Amashyirahamwe n'imiryango idaharanira inyungu yita ku burenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu, bigomba kwigenga kandi bigashyigikirwa;

g) Gushyiraho urwego rw’igihugu rwigenga, rushinzwe kugenzura ko uburenganzira bwose bw'abenegihugu bemererwa n'amategeko bwubahirizwa.

3.Gusaranganya ibyiza by'igihugu

Abanyarwanda bagomba kugira uburenganzira bungana ku byiza byose by'igihugu

a) Abanyarwanda bakwiye gusaranganya ibyiza by’igihugu ntawe uryamiye undi;

b) Nta wemerewe gusahura ibya rubanda ngo abyite ibye yishingikirije umwanya afite mu butegetsi;

c) Ubutegetsi bwose bw'igihugu, mu nzego zose bugomba gusaranganywa;

d) Umutungo bwite w’umwenegihugu ni ntavogerwa, ugomba kurengerwa n’amategeko;

e) Kurwanya ikimenyane, ruswa n'uburiganya mu mitangire y’imirimo n’amasoko ya Leta, abagaragaweho ubwo busembwa bagahanwa by’intangarugero.

4.Urwego rw’uburezi

Uburezi bufite ireme bugomba kwitabwaho hirindwa gahunda zigamije idindira n'ivangura mu bana b'u Rwanda

a) Urubyiruko rugomba guhabwa uburezi bufite ireme, hibandwa cyane cyane ku bushobozi bwa buri mwana;

b) Amashuri y'imyuga agomba kujyana n'iterambere ry'igihugu, hibandwa cyane cyane kuyagirira akamaro urubyiruko n'igihugu muri rusange;

c) Leta igomba kwita ku balimu n'abarezi, ibagenera imishahara ijyanye n'igihe, imfashanyigisho n'ibindi bikoresho byose nkenerwa;

d) Kubaka amashuri ajyanye n’igihe tugezemo mu turere twose tw’igihugu;

e) Kwirinda ihindagurika rya hato na hato mu myigishirize, rituma uburezi buta ireme;

f) Guteza imbere imyigishirize y'amasomo yose mu rurimi rw'ikinyarwanda;

5. Guca burundu politike y'ikinyoma

Umuco w'ikinyoma ugomba gucika burundu mu buzima bw'igihugu bwose, himakazwa politike ishingiye ku kuri, umucyo n'ubworoherane.

a) Gushyiraho inama y’igihugu yo kugaragaza ukuri ku mateka yaranze u Rwanda n'amahano yarugwiririye;

b) Gukemura ikibazo amahano yagwiririye u Rwanda yateje, biciye mu kuri, ubwumvikane n'ubutabera;

c) Guca umuco wo kwibonekeza n'ikinyoma, ahubwo imbaraga zigashyirwa mu gukemura ibibazo by’ingutu bibangamiye abanyarwanda.

d) Umuco wo gusuzugurana no guhindura amateka uko atari, ugomba gucika;

6. Urwego rw’ubukungu

Kugirango ikibazo cyo kwiharira ubukungu bw'igihugu gikemuke, hagomba gufatwa ingamba zo kubusaranganya mu buryo bukurikira:

a) Gukora igenamigambi ryita ku iterambere ry'abenegihugu mu ngeri zose;

b) Imishinga igamije guteza imbere ubukungu igomba gusaranganywa mu turere twose tw’igihugu,

c) Abayobozi batowe na rubanda bagomba kugira uruhare mu guteganya imishinga izamura uturere batowemo;

d) Uturere dukwiye guhabwa ububasha n'ubushobozi mu micungire y'iterambere ryatwo;

e) Uburyo bwo gucunga ibigo bya leta bukwiye gukorwa mu mucyo hirindwa; ruswa, ikimenyane n'icyenewabo;

f) Gushyiraho urwego rushinzwe kugenzura uko umutungo wa leta ukoreshwa;

g) Imishahara y'abakozi ba leta bose, igomba kugendana n'ubukungu bw'igihugu hirindwa ubusumbane bukabije;

7. Ibyerekeye umuryango n'imibereho y'abaturage

Umuryango nyarwanda ugomba kwitabwaho, usubizwa agaciro nk’inkingi ya mwamba igihugu cyubakiyeho.

a) Ababyeyi bafite inshingano zo kurera abana babo, bita ku muco nyarwanda;

b) Ururimi n'umuco nyarwanda bigomba gusigasirwa, bihabwa agaciro mu nzego zose z'igihugu;

c) Ubutegetsi n’ababyeyi bagomba kuzirikana uruhare rukomeye rw’umuryango mu majyambere rusange y’igihugu;

d) Leta ifite inshingano zo kurinda no kwita ku muryango iwugezaho ibikorwaremezo byibanze; amazi meza, amashanyarazi, amavuriro, amashuri, imihanda, itumanaho, n'ibindi...

e) Leta igomba kwita byumwihariko ku miryango y'abasangwabutaka b'Abatwa mu rwego rwo gusigasira imibereho, umuco n'amateka byabo.

8. Urwego rw'ububanyi n'amahanga

Kugira ngo u Rwanda rubane neza n'ibindi bihugu hakenewe politike ishingiye ku bwubahane, ubwumvikane n'imigenderanire myiza.

a) Guharanira inyungu rusange z'abanegihugu, aho gushyirimbere inyungu za ba mpatsibihugu;

b) Gutsura umubano ku buryo umunyarwanda yishyira akizana no bindi bihugu;

c) Gushyira imbere uburyo bw’amahoro n’imishyikirano mu gukemura amakimbirane hagati y’u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu aho kwigira gashozantambara;

d) Gushyigikira ubuhahirane no guteza imbere urujya n'uruza hagati y'u Rwanda n'amahanga.

9. Ibyerekeye impunzi Mu rwego rwo kurangiza burundu ikibazo gitera ubuhunzi no gushaka igisubizo kirambye, hakenewe:

a) Hakenewe ibiganiro byimbitse hagati y’ubutegetsi n’amashyaka cyangwa amashyirahamwe ahagarariye inyungu z’impunzi;

b) Gusesengura no gushaka igisubizo cy'impamvu zose zitera ubuhunzi;

c) Gushimangira demokarasi n'imiyoborere myiza y'igihugu;

d) Guteganya uburyo bwo gufasha abanyarwanda bahisemo kuba mu bihugu by'amahanga kugirango biteze imbere n'igihugu muri rusange. Imitegekere mibi irangwa n'igitugu n'ivangura ry’amoko mu banyarwanda byimitswe n’ingoma ya FPR kuva mu mwaka w’1994, yatumye ibibazo byatewe n’intambara y’Inkotanyi, n’ibyariho mbere yayo, aho gukemuka birushaho kuba inzitane.

Uburyo bwiza bwo gukemura ibibazo bishingiye ku mitegekere mibi n'ivangura, ni uko abanyarwanda baganira ku bibazo bibugarije, bagashakira hamwe ibisubizo bagafata n'ingamba ziboneye mu bwumvikane, mu kuri, mu bwubahane, no mu bwuzuzanye. Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko byerekana ko abanyarwanda bashyize hamwe, bagashingira ku mitegekere ihamye mu nyungu rusange no ku mateka y’igihugu cyabo, bagira u Rwanda igihugu gitemba amata n’ubuki.

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